The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  The weakest nations – the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) – have insisted that developed nations reduce emissions as much as possible.  Countries that had supported the differentiation of the objectives had different ideas on how to calculate them and many different indicators were proposed.  Two examples are the differentiation of targets on the basis of gross domestic product (GDP) and differentiation by energy intensity (energy consumption per economic unit).  c) Reconciling financial flows with a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Analysts have developed scenarios for future changes in greenhouse gas emissions that will stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.  Climate models suggest that lower stabilization levels are linked to lower magnitudes of future global warming, while higher stabilization levels are linked to higher magnitudes of future global warming (see chart opposite).  In the context of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in their pursuit of emissions reductions.
The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. Non-land use change and forestry (LUCF) GHG emissions, reported by 122 non-annex parties in 1994 or the following year, amounted to 11.7 billion tonnes (billions – 1,000,000,000) co2-eq. CO2 was the largest share of emissions (63%), followed by methane (26%) and protogen (N2O) (11%).